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X1A2-3Z4O10(OH, F)2, where commonly X=K, Na, Ca; A=Al, Mg, Fe; Z=Si, Al. Has two more-common occurrences, light-colored (translucent and pearly tan) muscovite, and dark colored biotite. Has one strong cleavage, and is typically seen as sheets, in stacks or “books.” Common in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. Structure is two-dimensional sheets of silica tetrahedra in a hexagonal netowork.

muscovite, biotite
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Author: Chris

Assistant Professor, Salt Lake Community College, Salt Lake City, Utah