Written by Dexter Perkins, University of North Dakota (2020); significant rewriting and photo replacements (April 2022)
This book was a team effort. In addition to the principal author, significant contributions came from Miranda Shanks, Elizabeth Perkins, Douglas Perkins, Kevin Henke, Alyssa Schultz, Paige Tibke, Hunter Morris, and Josh Crowell.
If you find this book of value, you may wish to check out the companion Open Petrology text.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is intended for educational purposes only. Classroom and class use do not require attribution. Copy what you wish for handouts, add our images and drawings to labs or lectures — do any of that without a worry. Read more about limits on use by clicking on the Creative Commons link in blue above.
Printing and PDF Versions
Many people have asked us to provide printable files or pdf versions of this book. This is not easily done because every chapter of this book is a single web page. So there is no pagination. We have added buttons at the end of every chapter for printing or creating pdf files, but the results are not very good. If anyone has a better plugin or suggestion, please let us know.
Photo and Graphic Credits
The visuals, especially the photos, are one of the things that make this book what it is. As of September 2020, the book contains 1,028 figures; almost all are full color and most are photographs. And, the majority of the photos came from Wikimedia Commons or others websites where selfless individuals have made their material available under a Creative Commons license for educational purposes. We have put figure credits at the end of every chapter. But, a number of individuals deserve special recognition for all the terrific photos they have shared: James St. John, Didier Descouens, Robert M. Lavinsky, Géry Parent, Marie Lan Taÿ Pamart, Siim Sepp, Andrew Silver, Eurico Zimbres, Amcyrus2012, Alex Strekeisen, Chmee2, Kevin Walsh, Teravolt, Acroterion, Amotoki, Bereket Haileab, Brocken Inaglory, Daniel Mayer, Graeme Churchard, Jan Helebrant, John Krygier, Kelly Nash, Leon Hupperichs, Mike Norton, R. Weller, Raike, Roy Goldberg, Walter Siegmund, and Woudloper. Unbeknownst to them, every one of these individuals contributed multiple photos to this project.
The nature of this kind of book means that it is always an ongoing project. If you see need for changes or additions of any sort, please email the main author at: dexter[dot]perkins[at]und[dot]edu. Minor corrections are made on a continual basis. The text was rewritten for clarity and content, and somewhat expanded in April 2022. Some photos were replaced at the same time.
Different web browsers have different quirks. For the best and most consistent results, we recommend using Chrome and recommend against using Firefox when viewing this book. But, sometimes Chrome does not show the same sharp images that Firefox does. So, the bottom line is that you should try several browsers and use the one that works best for you. They will NOT be the same. Additionally, we warn that many tables will not render well on small screens, and not at all on cell phones.