VFE: Glaciers

Glaciers, glacial sediments,
and glacial geomorphology VFE

GigaPans

These GigaPans are the basis for the questions in the first part of the lab:

1.) What type of glacier is this?

2.) Here are two valleys: Which one is glacial in origin? Why?

Valley X Valley Y

3.) What kind of lake is this?
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4.) Examine the annotations on this image. First (yellow) annotation: What kind of lake is this? Second annotation (red): What is the name for this landform? Third annotation (blue): Is this valley glacial or river-carved in origin?

5.) Examine the annotations on this image. First (yellow) annotation: What kind of landform is this? Second and third (blue) annotations: What kind of landforms are these?

6.) Click on the annotations at lower left. First annotation (yellow): What feature can be seen here? Second annotation (red):What feature can be seen here?

7.) This GigaPan was taken looking from north to south. Several features are visible, including sedimentary bedding (gray and tan), mineral veins (orange, perpendicular to bedding; and white, diagonal to bedding), and glacial striations. Identify the glacial striations and determine in which direction the glacier was flowing.

8.) This is a deposit of glacial till. Identify the key characteristics of this sedimentary deposit.

9.) Here are two sedimentary rocks, A and B: Which one is glacial in origin (lithified till, or “tillite”)? Why?

Sample A Sample B

10.) Click on the annotations at lower left. First annotation (yellow): What is the origin of this sediment? Second annotation (red): What is the origin of this sediment? Third annotation (blue): What is the origin of this sediment?

11.) Click on the annotations in this image. First annotation (yellow): What feature can be seen here? Second annotation (red): What feature can be seen here?


Topographic maps

This GigaPan shows the 5 maps you will need for the second part of the lab:

It may also be useful to examine these same sites in a seamless Google Map “terrain view” of the North American landscape (note the drop-down menu in the upper left corner):

Continental glaciation in LiDAR

The final set of questions for the lab deal with a LiDAR image of Scandanavia. This map shows several excellent examples of glacial geomorphology. LiDAR is a super-high-precision topographic mapping technique that uses lasers on aircraft to figure out exactly how high the land surface is. This LiDAR has been color-coded to show elevation: blue is low (but not sea-level); and the colors grade upward from green to yellow to orange to white (highest).

Jouko Vanne

Identify one of each of the following (take a screenshot of an example of each, and submit those 5 images with your lab, labeling key features of the image):

    • glacial striations
    • terminal moraine
    • outwash delta
    • esker
    • kettles