Human Evolution

Paleoanthropology and Human Evolution

Humans as a species

Humans as Primates

Hominid terminology (Hominin, Hominoid, etc.)

Human fossils

        1. Hominid body fossils
          1. Olduvai Gorge and elsewhere (brief)
        2. Hominid ichnofossils
          1. Laetoli Trackway, etc. 

Hominid/Primate phylogeny

        1. Shared/derived characters
          1. Pentadacytly
          2. Cranial volume
          3. Occipital Ridge
          4. Zygomaticus Arch
          5. Sagittal Crest
          6. Dentition
          7. Bipedalism
            1. Hip structure
            2. Foramen Magnum
          8. Intelligence – The “Tool Maker”
        2. Phylogeny
          1. Primates
            1. Hominoidea
              1. Hominidae
                1. Homininae
                  1. Hominini
                  2. Various genus and species, but with a focus on Homo

Human culture

Archaeological remains

        1. Tools
        2. Firepits
        3. Housing
        4. Ceremonial Settings
        5. Art

Interpreting material culture

        1. Stone Age
          1. Olduvai scrapers (2.5 Ma)
          2. Acheulean stone hand axe (1.6 Ma)
          3. Fire creation and manipulation (1.5 Ma)
          4. Modern human anatomy (200 Ka)
          5. Clothing (170 Ka)
          6. Ceramics – 27 Ka
          7. Domestication of animals (17 Ka)
          8. Bow, sling – 11 Ka
          9. Microliths – 11 Ka
          10. Handmade bricks – 8 Ka
          11. Plough – 6 Ka
          12. Wheel – 6 Ka
          13. Gnomon – 6 Ka
          14. Writing – 5.5 Ka
        2. Copper Age – 5.2 Ka
        3. Bronze Age – 4.5 Ka
          1. Salt – 4.5 Ka
          2. Chariots – 4 Ka
        4. Iron Age

What does it all mean?