14.2_Steve Earle_ice flow and stress

Cross-section of a glacier shows upper part of the glacier moving en masse and breaking in a brittle fashion while the lower part flows ductiley.

Cross-section of a valley glacier showing stress (red numbers) increase with depth under the ice. The ice will deform and flow where the stress is greater than 100 kilopascals, and the relative extent of that deformation is depicted by the red arrows. Down slope movement is shown with blue arrows. The upper ice above the red dashed line does not flow but is pushed along en masse. (Source: Steve Earle)

16.2 How Glaciers Work

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